1970 cyclone changes the course of history

“November 12, 1970. No one would ever forget it. Two hundred and fifty miles of coastline on the Bay of Bengal was devastated, a huge V chewed out of the side of the country. Homes, crops, cattle and poultry, everything blown or washed away. To where? It was impossible to say. Though I imagined this place, somewhere to the north, butted up against the Himalayas, where the wind and waves had died down, and a massive pile of wood and metal, clothes, shoes, steel pots, pans, broken dishes, bodies of chickens and cows and goats, family photos, jewellery, school projects and notebooks, dolls, diapers and every single edible thing in the country lay. Cemented together by that distinctive silt that was the soil of East Pakistan.”

From This Innocent Corner

The deadliest tropical cyclone in world history hit the coast of what is now Bangladesh in the middle of the night nearly forty years ago on November 12, 1970.  It is estimated that up to 500,000 people died.  No one really knows how many – records were not reliable, if they existed at all, and with that huge number of deaths, burial of the bodies was more important than identification and record-keeping.  However, the death toll was most certainly ridiculously miscalculated by the government whose first official estimate was 50 dead.

In total, nearly 3.6 million people were affected by the cyclone.

Bhola cyclone

1970 Bhola Cyclone (Courtesy NOAA, Wikimedia Commons)

The tropical cyclone which had no name is now often referred to as the 1970 Bhola Cyclone (named after the coastal district which was directly in the storm’s path).  The storm sustained winds of 185 km/h – “sustained” means as measured over the course of three minutes – and therefore, is designated a “Category 3” storm.  By way of comparison, the recent hurricane Igor that hit Newfoundland in October 2010 was “Category 1.”  Katrina was also a “Category 3” storm.

There was an early warning system in place.  Meteorologists knew about the storm, and the fact that it was intensifying as it approached the coast.  However, the warnings on radio were restricted to the usual weather reports.  Regular programming was not interrupted.


One reason was a much smaller cyclone that hit the coast on October 23, a mere three weeks earlier.  Radio programming had been interrupted, at-risk areas had been evacuated, and in the end, the storm did not hit with the force that was expected, and only 300 people died.  The authorities did not want to repeat this experience.  According to other accounts, the authorities believed everyone had already taken shelter, including the fishermen in the Bay of Bengal, and there was no need to issue further warnings.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who was running for office in the election that had been scheduled for early December that year, toured the devastated region.  When he returned to Dhaka, he said at a press conference, “I cannot find words adequate to describe the holocaust which the cyclone and tidal bore have left in their trail.  Nor can I adequately convey in words the suffering and the misery of those who have survived.  Whole areas have been totally depopulated.  In many areas of Patuakhali, Bhola and Noakhali barely 20 to 25 per cent of the total population has survived.  The survivors have lost their homes, their crops, their cattle; in fact they have lost all their worldly belongings.  They are without clothes, without shelter and in many of the areas without any food or drinking water.  The wounds on their bodies are turning septic.  They face death from starvation, exposure and disease.”

Most of the dead were believed to have been women and children.  They could not hold onto trees and buildings when the wall of a wave, the storm surge, hit them.

Relief efforts were slow for so many tragic reasons.  Bodies were not buried quickly enough.  Cholera and other diseases broke out.  People ate tree roots and drank water from ponds in which corpses were rotting because they had no other choice.

Still, the 1970 cyclone may have changed the course of history.  At that time, Bangladesh was East Pakistan, and was part of a larger nation, Pakistan, divided geographically by the land mass of India.  However, the people of East Pakistan had been struggling to achieve some level of autonomy, believing it was not just geography that separated them from their western cousins.  The west controlled the country, and set policies that favoured west over east.  When the government response to the cyclone was so slow and inadequate, people’s beliefs against the west were reinforced.  The ruling party suffered at the polls and they lost the election.  East Pakistani politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was elected leader of the entire nation.  This eventually led to political crisis and the Liberation War in 1971.

Today, the country is still struck by cyclonic storms from a season that lasts from May to November.  The most recent devastating cyclonic storm was in November 2007.  Cyclone Sidr was a Category 5 storm that is estimated by several international development agencies to have killed up to 10,000 people.  But it is a far cry from the number of dead and amount of destruction that would have occurred had cyclone preparedness not improved as much as it has since 1970.  Though the damage done in that storm should not be underestimated, Oxfam estimates 100,000 people’s lives were saved because of improvements to cyclone preparedness in the country.

In the forty years since the Bhola Cyclone, the early warning system has been recast and upgraded many times, and as new technologies become available, preparedness is under steady reform.  It consists of everything from new forecasting devices for meteorologists, to an emergency action plan carried out by the country’s national radio broadcaster, to texting (!!), to a flagging system, even to a cadre of women with megaphones who will spread the word.  The British Red Cross is one of the organizations at the centre of cyclone preparedness.

In the video, you can see what a cyclone shelter looks like.  They are easily seen all over the country once you get near the coastline.  Many of them mushroomed up in the years that I lived in Bangladesh.  The easy availability of the shelters was a great help.  But building the shelters was not enough.  Efforts also had to be made to encourage people to use them – the video mentions the husbands who did not allow their wives to go to the shelters.  As well, people needed to be allowed to be able to bring their livestock to the shelter.  (One of the reasons they sometimes did not use the shelters was because they preferred to protect their livestock from the storm.)

Another of the dramatic cyclones in Bangladeshi history took place in October 1942 when 40,000 people were killed.  My grandfather, John Herring, with the Royal Air Force, was posted to Bengal at that time.  Here’s one of several photos he took from the banks of the Hooghly River.  It’s heart-breaking to see the dead like that and I wonder how my grandfather dealt with it.

Bay of Bengal Cyclone

On the banks of the Hooghly River after the 1944 cyclone.

I was very surprised in reading about cyclones to find that there remain questions about their exact cause.  Though there are six certain conditions that may lead to a cyclone, many related to ocean temperatures, prevailing winds and other meteorological factors, the operative word here is “may.”  Cyclonic storms still appear where none of those conditions appear to exist.



  1. April 7, 2011 at 6:21 pm

    […] first election in Pakistan, and had been delayed numerous times, once most notably because of the Bhola Cyclone.  It pitted the country’s west wing against the country’s east, with Zulfikar Ali […]

  2. August 2, 2011 at 3:52 am

    […] the people of Bangladesh.  The country was then known as East Pakistan and while recovering from a devastating cyclone, its people found themselves embroiled in a civil war that created conditions so horrific that […]

  3. Joel Chetlain said,

    March 16, 2014 at 2:30 am

    I was going on 10 when East Pakistan was hit by the Bhola Cyclone. Though young I remember pictures of the devestation and my grandparents talking about the story. Hopefully won’t live to see anything this horrific in the future. Bhola puts Camille, Katrina and, even Galveston 1900, to shame. To put Cyclone Bhola in perspective the December 26, 2004 tsunami killed 50% less. Glad warning systems have vastly improved since 1970.

    • March 17, 2014 at 5:53 am

      Yeah, I am glad – really glad – they’ve improved, too. The impact of that storm was part of my childhood, too, and probably the first time I’d had any awareness of E. Pakistan. Thanks for sharing your thoughts.

  4. Beebee said,

    April 10, 2014 at 6:31 pm

    😦 so sad I am going to cry

    • April 10, 2014 at 6:54 pm

      Oh Beebee, it is terribly sad. I agree. The pain and the loss will never be forgotten. Neither will the courage and strength of those who carried on and voted with their hearts so soon afterwards. Reading about this time always moves me, too.

  5. Beebee said,

    April 10, 2014 at 6:32 pm

    I hate when this happen

  6. October 3, 2014 at 8:10 am

    […] tracks from 1970 to 2005. The 1970 Bhola cyclone was the most notable of these for political, national, and meteorological […]

  7. October 3, 2014 at 7:34 pm

    If you’re interested in reading a more detailed history of the Bhola cyclone, you may wish to look for Cornelia Rohde’s book, “Catalyst: In the Wake of the Great Bhola Cyclone.” It’s a moving and honest account about a group of friends who decided to help one community in the months following the disaster. As a self-published book, it’s not widely distributed in hard copy, but the e-book is readily available from most major on-line booksellers. I really enjoyed the book, and would be interested in hearing from anyone else who checks it out.

  8. October 27, 2015 at 8:25 pm

    Hi, very nice, informative article. That cyclone was the last straw for us. I would like to make a big request: may we publish this in our weekend magazine? The 45th anniversary is coming up and we have been searching for a suitable article or someone to write us one. We will give you full credit. But I am afraid we won’t be able to pay you,

    • October 27, 2015 at 9:20 pm

      Thank you, Parveen. I’d be thrilled to have this piece appear in The Independent’s weekend magazine. I will DM you in a moment. It really was the last straw, wasn’t it? I hope the 45th is suitably marked, not only in Bangladesh. It was a catalyst for some big changes that rippled out all over the planet.

  9. Quora said,

    November 14, 2016 at 6:32 pm

    Why do India show dead bodies of flood and cyclone victims as evidence against genocide of Bengalis by Pakistan Army in 1971 war?

    This post from Chetan Rattan draws the connections between the Bhola cyclone, the election and the 1971 war.


  10. November 14, 2016 at 7:32 pm

    Just received an interesting link from the Quora website (see above, comment #9). Chetan Rattan whose profile indicates he follows geopolitical changes in India, Pakistan and China posted an answer to the question:

    Why do India show dead bodies of flood and cyclone victims as evidence against genocide of Bengalis by Pakistan Army in 1971 war?

    His analysis does a good job of tracing the trajectory of events that led to the 1971 war and the role played by the Bhola cyclone, the humanitarian crisis, and the election. In the eyes of many Bangladeshis, there is a causal relationship between the events.


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